V1.1 - Final - May 10, 2023

All v1.1 changes are highlighted by a [ red comment ].

This Handbook includes the specific rules, regulations, and general guidelines adopted by 1Gun.  It is the intention of 1Gun that this simple set of rules serve to protect 1Gun from the gimmickry and technical gamesmanship that have had such a negative effect on other shooting disciplines. The founders of 1Gun combine marksmanship, mission based, and run-n-gun type stages with a more dynamic experience that requires the shooter to adapt vs replay a rehearsed stage plan.

TYPES OF STAGES (Must be denoted on the COF)

Standards Based Stages

  1. The purpose of these stages is to test basic gun handling and marksmanship, such as:
    • Gun manipulations: draw, switching hands, reloading, reloading with retention, …
    • Non-standard shooting: SHO, WHO, prone, kneeling, longer distance, accuracy, shooting on the move, …
  2. Must be between 5-25 hits with no target farther than 50 yards.

Mission Based Stages

  1. The purpose of these stages is to have a specific mission, i.e., start here, do this, do that, end at this position.
  2. Must be between 10-30 hits with no target farther than 25 yards.
  3. Non-shooting activities that ….
    • contribute to the awkwardness of shooting can be required like, but not limited to the following:
      • Mandatory reloading of the gun, and loading a loading device to a maximum of 6 rounds.
      • Pulling a rope, activating a target, carrying a box, holding/carrying an item (no greater than 20 lb.) while shooting, …
    • do not contribute to the shooting cannot be required, like, but not limited to the following:
      • Performing or saying any phrases
      • Skipping, dancing, or anything else you would not be doing in a gun fight.

Run-n-Gun Type Stages

  1. The only purpose of these stages is to move and shoot as fast as you can SAFELY.
  2. Must be between 15-35 hits with no target farther than 40 yards.


COF must specify the following

  1. Stage type (Standards, Mission, or Run-n-Gun)
  2. Number of hits required per target (all paper targets must require the same number of hits)
  3. Number of targets on the stage
  4. Number of shooting areas (SA)
  5. Scoring based on: limited or unlimited shot count.
  6. Starting position, and, if needed, an ending target/location/position/shooting area
  7. Stage engagement procedure (if needed), i.e. if any special instructions are required:
    • If certain targets must be engaged from a certain shooting area. (i.e. T1 and T2 must be shot from SA1, T3-T6 must be shot from SA2, …)
    • If certain targets must be engaged in a certain fashion (SHO, WHO, kneeling, T5 must be the last target engaged, …)

Unless otherwise specified in the COF

  1. The “If you can see it, you can shoot at it” rule applies.
  2. The targets may be shot in any order (note: a COF however can specify target (Tx) is first or last or in this order)
  3. All shots are done freestyle.
  4. All paper targets require 2 hits and steel requires 1 hit and if it can fall it must fall to be scored.
  5. All white targets (steel or paper) must be engaged.
  6. No limit on the number of loading devices you can carry
  7. Shooters are limited to no more than 50 rounds on them per stage.
    [ Removed in v1.1 an unneeded restriction. ]
  8. Shooters can reload on their discretion, (i.e. partially full magazines and ammo can be left behind with no penalty).
  9. Starting position is standing upright, both hands touching the initial cup covering the threat target color, head, hip, and toes facing downrange.
  10. The muzzle safety zone will be defined to the 180-degree rule (see the Glossary for the 180-degree rule definition). 
    The match director can alter the muzzle safety zone, provided it is specified on the COF and clearly visible to the shooter on the stage.

Additional notes for all types of stages

  1. A clear and decisive starting position is required (standing/sitting/lying, direction, hand and feet positions, holding items, …)
  2. To create a dynamic stage experience; As part of the stage reset, a coin will be flipped to determine the threat color but hidden from the shooter under a cup or some other opaque object, which will be revealed by the shooter after the starting beep. 
    • Color targets will force the shooter to adapt while on the clock, instead of simply playing out a pre-rehearsed plan.
    • Just like in life, not everything is the same, but every effort is placed on fairness. The same shooting complexity, as well as the number of rounds required for the stage,  must be the same regardless of what threat color(s) are selected.
    • If all the targets clearly belong to one and only one shooting area and the shooter cannot engage/reengage targets from multiple shooting areas, each shooting area may have their own coin flip to determine the threat color for that particular shooting area. This will dramatically increase the number of permutations each stage has for the shooter.
  3. Reducing setup time or the number of bays required,
    • stages can be shot multiple times, altering the threat target color.
    • adding in the ability for each distinct shooting area to have their own coin flip, the number of possible stage permutations explodes.
      i.e. Two shooting areas can produce four stage possibilities. Three results in eight possibilities. Four results in 16, and so forth.
  4. Mandatory prone and kneeling shots are only allowed in the last shooting position. Additionally, an alternate handicap (only) position must be specified.
  5. Props (walls, barrels, cars, desks, …) are encouraged on all of the stage types.
  6. The time starts at the sound of the beep and stops on the last shot fired.
  7. A "stop plate" can be specified in the COF, which stops the timer. Each shot fired after the stop plate has been struck, will be scored as an "extra shot" penalty.
  8. All bonus steel targets (must be denoted on the COF) may be engaged by any shooter.
  9. The shooter is given the option to re-shoot the stage if anyone other than the shooter (or under their direction) reveals the threat color(s).
    [ Added in v1.1 to highlight the shooter should be the only one that reveals the threat color. ] 
  10. The "stop plate" and "bonus steel" targets may be highlighted with a painted X in another color (like yellow) provided it is fully disclosed on the coarse of fire.
    [ Added in v1.1 to help highlight the stop plate and bonus targets. ]


  1. Scoring is time + points (to be more specific: your score = time + points down + penalties)
  2. All stage types must specify either “Limited Scoring” or “Unlimited Scoring” to be utilized.
    • Limited Scoring - means the shooter may only engage targets with the specified number of rounds (extra shots will result in a penalty per shot).
    • Unlimited Scoring - means the shooter must engage all the target with at least the number of specified of rounds.
  3. Some targets may also contain a bonus area, shots impacting this area will result in the removal of 1 second (or more if specified in the COF) from the stage time.  Other than the bonus area, the target is like any other target.  All shooters must be given the same number of bonus opportunities.
    [ Modified in v1.1 to highlight other than the "bonus area" the target is scored just like any other target (i.e. points down, failure to engage, ...). ] 
  4. Shoot throughs count and the shooter will be awarded the points (on the threat and/or non-threat target), but the shooter is still required to engage all targets with the appropriate number of rounds (i.e. you still must engage all targets regardless if the bullet penetrates multiple targets). 
  5. To avoid confusion,
    1. If “it breaks the perf” (on both threat and non-threat targets) it counts. To be perfectly clear, if any part of the perforation is clearly hit, it counts. i.e. you may use overlays to determine it, but we just need to be consistent and give all doubt to the shooter.
    2. “It was made by the bullet going thru the object”, if you can determine that a bullet made the hole, it counts. Said another way:
      • It counts if you can tell it came from the bullet that went through a stick or soft cover and struck the target,
      • It does not count if it is fragment from steel, a prop, or from anything other than the bullet.
    3. “Is it a hole or rip or a tear”, if it is more than twice the diameter of the bullet, it is not a hole and does not count.
    4. “It’s a double”, in this case there must be two clear grease rings to count. As a result, a perfect double is by definition; a hit and a miss.
    5. Exclusion zones (black painted areas or as a result of stacking targets) are used to remove portions of the target from the score-able area. See the target section for more detail.
      [ Modified in v1.1 to highlight stacked targets.  This is very common in indoor ranges. ]
    6. Hard cover:
      • All props (walls, barrels, cars, tables, etc.) are considered hard cover, unless stated in the COF as soft cover.
      • Actual hard cover that prevents the bullet from passing through (i.e. use steel plates to prevent the bullet from passing through).
    7. Shots through "hard cover" are considered to be a dead round from that point on, and can not be scored for or against the shooter.
      [ Added in v1.1 to help clarify when rounds pass through simulated "hard cover" are declared dead.  ]
    8. No shooter or spectator may touch the target prior to being scored. Any person doing so, may be disqualified (DQ) from the match (requires match directors' approval).
    9. If a competitor is unable to finish a stage or string because of an obvious competitor's equipment failure (i.e. barrel blockage, firearm breakage, etc.), the competitor will be scored his time and hits for the course of fire until the breakage, and awarded ALL penalties for misses, failures to engage, and any other procedural penalties appropriate to the stage or string. If they are able to reshoot the stage within 5 minutes, they may elect to reshoot the stage/string for score, plus a Reshoot Penalty (this allows the shooter to reshoot the stage and see how they would have done if they did not have the failure).
      Note: Once they elect to reshoot, they must reshoot and the new score will be used.
    10. If a competitor is unable to finish a stage or string because of a range equipment failure (activator not activated, target(s) not taped/reset, etc.) or the Safety Officer mistakenly stops a shooter for a suspected safety problem (and the problem does not exist), the score is lost, or the wrong range commands were used, the shooter is required to reshoot the stage.


  1. Generic Procedural (5 Seconds), unless a competitive advantage is gained, then a competitor will be assessed a Flagrant Penalty.
    1. Failure to engage penalty for each target not engaged (hit or miss) with at least one shot.
      • Shall not be assessed for any target not engaged due to PAR time expiration.
      • Shall not be assessed for any disappearing targets.
      • Shall not be assessed for targets not engaged due to prematurely hitting a stop plate.
    2. Failure to expose the threat color and "hoping you shoot the right targets", is not a penalty.  But if you guess wrong, you will receive the failure to engage penalties and the associated misses for each target. 
    3. Extra shots taken (for each shot fired) on a limited scoring stage or for shots fired after the specified "stop plate" has been struck.
    4. Overtime Shot (for each shot that is over the 0.31 second over the time limit) when PAR time is used.
    5. Foot Fault penalty for each shot fired outside of the shooting area.
    6. Supporting or bracing yourself with any object outside the shooting area will result in a penalty for each shot fired while braced.
      [ Added in v1.1 to help clarify ]
    7. Premature Start, aka the shooter making any movement (other than slight head movements), including exposing the threat color, between the “Stand By” and start signal.  
    8. Failure to be Ready to Start, if the shooter is not ready to shoot within 15 seconds once the Safety Officer (SO) is ready to start
    9. Air gunning or taking sight pictures, within the stage boundaries
  2. Hit on Non-Threat (5 Seconds) for each hit on a non-threat target. If a round goes through a threat target and strikes a non-threat target (a “shoot-through”), you get credit for the hit on the threat, but you will be penalized for all hits on the non-threat unless the shot hits the non-threat in it's exclusion zone.
  3. Reshoot (15 Seconds), for anyone awarded a reshoot for shooter’s equipment failures. This allows the shooter to reshoot the stage due to equipment failures to see how they would have done if they did not have the failure. This penalty cannot be applied to range equipment failures.
  4. No Stop Plate (30 Seconds), for failing to hit the stop plate when required.
  5. Safety and Conduct Related Penalties:
    All Safety and Conduct Related offensives, the Safety Officer (SO) and Match Director (MD) have final authority.
    1. Finger Penalty (1st call, standard PE, 2nd call, DQ)
    2. Flagrant Penalty (10 seconds) is assessed for a shooter action that violates a rule that would normally earn a PE but that actually benefits the shooter by saving more time than the penalty adds, as an example he/she intentionally exposes the threat color prior to the "Stand By" command.
    3. Failure To Do Right Penalty (30 seconds) awarded to the shooter who disregards the COF to “game” the stage and results in any advantage. The match director will determine if the shooter was intentionally disregarding the COF.
    4. “That Guy” Penalty (60 seconds and a DQ on the second call) assessed to the shooter who is holding up the flow of the match or just being “that guy”, by doing any of the following (but not limited to):
      • Excessively arguing the COF or rules (asking for an explanation is fine, arguing the answer makes you "That Guy")
      • Spending too long in the initial walk through (i.e. limited to 5 minutes),
      • Individual walk throughs (with the exception of the next shooter is permitted to walk the stage during the reset time, but must be ready to shoot on the SO command),
      • Not helping (i.e. taping, picking up brass, resetting, etc.)
      • Non-handicapped shooters, utilizing handicapped only shooting positions.
      • Other actions that the Match Director (MD) calls out prior to match starting.
    5. Safety related penalty (DQ)
      • Unsafe gun handling (DQ) will be given to any shooter who fails to handle their gun in a safe manner.
      • Any reckless/accidental discharges/intentionally shooting at anything other than a specified target will result in disqualification (DQ) from the match.
      • Steel targets engaged in less than 10 yards will result in a disqualification (DQ) from the match.
      • Breaking the muzzle safety zone (i.e. 180-degree rule unless stated on the COF).
      • Violating the stage boundary while the COF is underway, unless explicitly allowed by the SO for the stage.
    6. Automatic disqualification (DQ) and required to leave the range to anyone displaying disruptive behavior.  Examples of this is:
      • Unsportsmanlike behavior. 
      • Offensive or objectionable garments on the range.
      • Offensive or abusive actions (verbal or otherwise) towards any other person
      • Under the influence of any drug or alcohol immediately before or during the match
      • Failure to follow Safety Officers (SOs) instructions with respect to the shooting competition and safety rules.


Any type of target (even mix matched) is allowed provided they are consistent for all shooters. i.e.

  1. Paper Targets:
    1. Standard type targets like IDPA, ICORE, IPSC / USPSA or similar targets can be used.
      IDPA targets scored as is (-0, -1, -3), misses will be -5,
      ICORE targets: X/A=-0, B=-1, C=-3, and misses will be -5,
      USPSA and IPSC targets: A=-0, C=-1, D=-3, and misses will be -5

    2. Non-Standard targets like 3x3 post-it notes, 3x5 cards, … can be used but must be scored as hit (-0) / miss (-5).
    3. All paper targets must be clearly marked to denote their "threat" color (red, white, and blue are the colors of choice).
      • Use different color paint or tape (at least 1 1/2" in width stretch across the entire target) to denote the threat color.
      • A threat target is any target marked with a white stripe or the threat color that was exposed from the coin flip (i.e. white and red, or white and blue).
      • A non-threat target is any target that is not a threat target.
    4. Moving targets (drop-turner, swinger, peek-a-boo, …):
      • should be used in moderation (i.e. 1 or 2 on a stage if fine, but more than that is not recommended)
      • are typically threat targets for all shooters, hence should be marked with white stripe.
    5. Threat color must not be given to the shooter prior to the stage's start time, and should be done by revealing the coin toss after the start signal.
    6. Scoring Exclusion Zones are not scored regardless if it is on a threat or non-threat target.  A scoring exclusion zone is defined by:
      1. any black areas on a target or
      2. in the case of stacked targets (i.e. on the same set of sticks or object), the hidden area of a target that is covered by another target

Please note, these are only exclusion zones for that target. So, if the bullet passes through an exclusion zone in target-1 and then strikes target-2 in a non-exclusion area, target-2 hit will be scored regardless if it is a threat or a non-threat.

[ Modified in v1.1 to simplify stage setup and scoring with stacked targets.  This is very common in indoor ranges. ]

  1. Steel targets
    1. Steel targets unless explicitly stated in the COF are considered to be white targets, as a result are considered common threats for all competitors.
    2. Steel targets may be painted with an associated threat color, only if the targets are repainted regularly throughout the match and there is an equal number of steel targets for all competitors regardless of which threat color is selected.
    3. All steel targets (static and falling) are scored as hit (-0) or miss (-5).
    4. Steel targets (that are designed to fall, i.e. poppers) must fall to count as a hit (-0) / miss (-5).
    5. Steel targets, that must fall, must be calibrated to fall with at least a 120 power factor to the main scoring area.
  2. All targets must be engaged from the specified shooting area only, if no shooting area is specified, then any shooting area is acceptable.
  3. Targets that are considered to be a common threat (i.e. a white target) "can be" or "can be required to be" engaged prior/post to exposing the threat color.  It could also be what triggers the exposing of the threat color.


  1. Divisions are based on round count (6, 8, 10, and 15) with categories based on gun sight (iron or optic) only.  There are no long gun of any type allowed, i.e. PCC, rifle, shotguns, etc.
  2. Appendix holsters will only be permitted for shooters with a classification of Advanced and approved by the Match Director and 1Gun Club Representative only.
    (Note: Appendix holster shooters, who DQ for any safety reasons, will not be permitted to shoot their following two 1Gun matches with an Appendix holster).
  3. Any type of loading device pouches will be allowed (including the shooter's pocket).
  4. The equipment is legal, if the following can be done without any of your equipment coming loose:
    • Jumping at least 6” off the ground
    • Standing from a sitting position in a standard chair
    • None of the trigger is exposed when holstered
  5. All weapons must be in working order and safe:
    • All safeties in working order.
    • Gun must be legal to own in the state they are competing in.
    • DA/SA firearms will start hammer down.

[ Modified in v1.1 to simplify the equipment, divisions, and categories.]


  1. Divisions are based on the maximum round count (L6, L8, L10, L15, and the optional R10 division) that are allowed to be in the loading device.
    • Starting in v1.1, an optional R10 division was introduced to allow rim-fire pistols to be used in paper only matches, based on the match director's discretion.
    • The L prefix will denote center-fire pistols and the R prefix will be used for rim-fire pistols.
      A couple of notes here:
      • All L-divisions compete straight up against pistols in that division, i.e. a 6-shot revolver competes against 6-shot semi-automatic and so forth.
      • All R-division (rim-fire pistols) compete against other rim-fire pistols, note there is only one allowable rim-fire division (R10).
      • Within a given division, there are two subdivisions or categories of weapons, based on their sight (iron or optics).
    • All loading devices will be loaded to division capacity, unless specified by the COF.
    • Loaded starts, unless specified by the COF; will be to division capacity, not division capacity plus one (i.e. there is no concept of a "Barney Round").
  2. Categories (or subdivisions) define the type of sights that will be used.
    • Iron
    • Optic

[ Modified in v1.1 to simplify the equipment, divisions, and categories.  Also introduced the R10 optional division.]


  1. Classifications will be broken down into three different classifications; Advanced, Intermediate, and Novice derived from a 1Gun classifiers. 
  2. Shooters are required to perform a classifier by their fourth local match.  If the shooter has not performed a classifier at this time, the club may assign the shooter a classification by following the steps called out in the 1Gun Classification Policy.
  3. Also see classifiers in the Stage Library for stage description and classification breakdowns.  


  1. Eye and ear protection must be worn by everyone (competitors and spectators) while participating or viewing events.
  2. New shooters must be cleared with the Match Director (MD) or other appointed individual as having the basic knowledge of the rules, and firearm safety.
  3. 1Gun functions on a "Cold Range" basis for safety.
    1. Unloaded firearms may be handled in designated areas only.
    2. Firearms may only be loaded or unloaded under the direction of Safety Officers (SOs).
    3. Violators will be disqualified (DQ) from the match, no exceptions.
  4. The 4 universal rules of gun safety must be followed at all times:
    1. Treat all guns as if they are always loaded.
    2. Never let the muzzle point at anything that you are not willing to destroy.
    3. Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on target and you have made the decision to shoot.
    4. Be sure of your target and what is behind it.

Range Commands 

Range commands are for both safety and stage administration purposes. They must be issued in English only and used at all match levels.

Command Description
Range Is Hot

The first command given to each shooter and signifies the start of the COF. The shooter and spectators will make sure that their eye and hearing protection is in place.

[ Modified in version 1.1 the "eyes and ears" portion of the command was removed to remain consistent with other shooting disciplines. ]

Load and Make Ready Command authorizes the shooter to prepare the firearm and magazines to the starting position for the stage regardless if it is a loaded or unloaded start. Typically, this is to load the firearm and holster, but may include nontypical loading or staging of equipment.
Are You Ready? Command allows the shooter a chance to pause the process if they are not ready, by responding with “Not Ready”. The shooter will only be given a total of 15 seconds to be ready or will receive a PE for "Failure to be Ready to Start”.
Standby Will be followed by the start signal within 1-4 seconds. The shooter may not move or change positions other than slight head movements between the “Standby” command and the start signal, unless required to do so by the COF.
Finger Command is given when the shooter’s finger is not obviously and visibly outside the trigger guard when it should be, as noted above.  Failure to comply, the safety officer will issue the finger call again, on the third call in the same stage the shooter will be given the STOP command, followed with a DQ.  If the shooter receives the finger call in two stages of a given match, they will be DQed as well.
Muzzle Command is given when the muzzle of the shooter’s firearm is pointed near a muzzle safe point. The shooter must correct and continue with the stage.  

Command is given when something unsafe has or is about to happen on the stage, or when something in the stage is not correct. This may be unrelated to anything the shooter has done, but simply the stage is in an unsafe condition.

The shooter must immediately stop all movement, place the trigger finger obviously and visibly outside the trigger guard, and await further instruction. Failure to immediately stop and remove the trigger finger from within the trigger guard will result in Disqualification from the match.

If Finished, Unload and Show Clear Command is given when the shooter has apparently finished shooting the stage. If the shooter is finished, all ammunition will be removed from the firearm and a clear chamber/cylinder will be shown to the SO. If the shooter is not finished, the shooter should finish the stage and the command will be repeated.
If Clear, Slide Forward or Close Cylinder Command will be issued by the SO once the SO has inspected the chamber/cylinder and believes it to be clear, this command will be issued and the shooter will comply. Remember it is the shooter’s responsibility to ensure the weapon is clear.
Pull the Trigger
(for semiautomatics)
Command is given to the shooter to point the firearm at a safe berm and pull the trigger to further verify that the chamber is clear. If the firearm fires, the shooter will be disqualified from the match. This requirement also applies to firearms with a de-cocker or magazine disconnect. For firearms with a magazine disconnect, an empty magazine, or dummy magazine must be inserted before the trigger is pulled, and then removed again.
Holster Command is given to the shooter to safely holster or bag the firearm.
Range is Clear Indicates to everyone that the range is clear and they are permitted to enter into the stage boundary. This command ends the COF and begins the scoring and resetting of the stage. 



Please see the Glossary.